[206] Because of its corrosion resistance, lead is used as a protective sheath for underwater cables. 1 Indonesia selama 10 tahun. Potential injuries to regular users of such batteries are not related to lead's toxicity. [213] Lead has no natural resonance frequencies;[213] as a result, sheet-lead is used as a sound deadening layer in the walls, floors, and ceilings of sound studios. [211] In the past it was often used to balance the wheels of cars; for environmental reasons this use is being phased out in favor of other materials. [226] Lead is one of three metals used in the Oddy test for museum materials, helping detect organic acids, aldehydes, and acidic gases.[227][228]. Environmental lead can compete with other metals found in and on plants surfaces potentially inhibiting photosynthesis and at high enough concentrations, negatively affecting plant growth and survival. 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[103] When the neutron flux subsides, these nuclei beta decay into stable isotopes of osmium, iridium, and platinum. In Roman times, lead sling bullets were amply used, and were effective at a distance of between 100 and 150 meters. [117][127] Lead mining occurred in Central Europe, Britain, the Balkans, Greece, Anatolia, and Hispania, the latter accounting for 40% of world production. It is inexpensive; its low melting point means small arms ammunition and shotgun pellets can be cast with minimal technical equipment; and it is denser than other common metals, which allows for better retention of velocity. Further captures result in lead-206, lead-207, and lead-208. Mechanisms of harm were better understood, lead blindness was documented, and the element was phased out of public use in the United States and Europe. Alternatively, as the applied dry paint deteriorates, it peels, is pulverized into dust and then enters the body through hand-to-mouth contact or contaminated food, water, or alcohol. BOXpoll, for the new age of ecommerce logistics. Pottery Barn’s expertly crafted collections offer a widerange of stylish indoor and outdoor furniture, accessories, decor and more, for every room in your home. [153], In Europe, lead production began to increase in the 11th and 12th centuries, when it was again used for roofing and piping. [177] The main product made of lead by the end of the 20th century was the lead–acid battery. The energy storage/release reaction used in these devices involves lead sulfate and lead dioxide: Other applications of lead compounds are very specialized and often fading. The earliest record dates to 1621 in the English Colony of Virginia, fourteen years after its foundation. [277] Lead was banned for shot and sinkers in the United States in 2017,[278] although that ban was only effective for a month,[279] and a similar ban is being considered in the European Union. [205] In 1993, the base of the Leaning Tower of Pisa was stabilized with 600 tonnes of lead. In this quickly shifting ecommerce landscape, Pitney Bowes is surveying consumers on a wide variety of ecommerce topics each week and publishing the best of our findings every month. [198] The Isasmelt process is a more recent smelting method that may act as an extension to primary production; battery paste from spent lead–acid batteries (containing lead sulfate and lead oxides) has its sulfate removed by treating it with alkali, and is then treated in a coal-fueled furnace in the presence of oxygen, which yields impure lead, with antimony the most common impurity. [109], World lead resources exceed two billion tons. Malleability describes how easily it deforms under compression, whereas ductility means its ability to stretch. [215][216] Lead is an established shielding material from radiation in nuclear science and in X-ray rooms[217] due to its denseness and high attenuation coefficient. Dimainkan di 100 negara dan memiliki 100 juta player dunia. [182], As of 2014, production of lead is increasing worldwide due to its use in lead–acid batteries. [255] Early childhood exposure has been linked with an increased risk of sleep disturbances and excessive daytime drowsiness in later childhood. The United Kingdom introduced mandatory factory inspections in 1878 and appointed the first Medical Inspector of Factories in 1898; as a result, a 25-fold decrease in lead poisoning incidents from 1900 to 1944 was reported. [248] The primary cause of its toxicity is its predilection for interfering with the proper functioning of enzymes. [110], Typical background concentrations of lead do not exceed 0.1 μg/m3 in the atmosphere; 100 mg/kg in soil; and 5 μg/L in freshwater and seawater. [244], Lead can cause severe damage to the brain and kidneys and, ultimately, death. [240] A 2009 Canadian–American study concluded that even at levels that are considered to pose little to no risk, lead may cause "adverse mental health outcomes". Grow with a financial partner that knows you. [214] Organ pipes are often made from a lead alloy, mixed with various amounts of tin to control the tone of each pipe. Lead tetrachloride (a yellow oil) decomposes at room temperature, lead tetrabromide is less stable still, and the existence of lead tetraiodide is questionable. [298] Several bacteria have been researched for their ability to remove lead from the environment, including the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum, both of which are highly effective in aqueous solutions. [225] Its use in solder for electronics is also being phased out by some countries to reduce the amount of environmentally hazardous waste. The version of record as reviewed is: "Lead: properties, history, and applications" (PDF), WikiJournal of Science, 1 (2): 7, 3 July 2018, doi:10.15347/WJS/2018.007, ISSN 2470-6345, Wikidata Q56050531, This article is about the metal.

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